Faults

Under high temperature and pressure conditions common within Earth, rocks can bend and flow. In the cooler parts of Earth, rocks are colder and deform elastically, storing energy that later is released suddenly during the frictional sliding of rocks along a fault - an earthquake.

A fault is a crack across which the rocks have been offset. They range in size from micrometers to thousands of kilometers in length and tens of kilometers in depth, but they are generally much thinner than they are long or deep. In addition to variation in size and orientation, different faults can accommodate different styles of rock deformation, such as compression and extension.

Not all faults intersect Earth's surface, and most earthquakes do no rupture the surface. When a fault does intersect the surface, objects may be offset or the ground may cracked, or raised, or lowered. We call a rupture of the surface by a fault a fault scarp and identifying scarps is an important task for assessing the seismic hazards in any region. When an earthquake occurs only a part of a fault is involved in the rupture. That area is usually outlined by the distribution of aftershocks in the sequence. We call the "point" (or region) where an earthquake rupture initiates the hypocenter or focus. The point on Earth's surface directly above the hypocenter is called the epicenter. When we plot earthquake locations on a map, we usually center the symbol representing an event at the epicenter.

Active faults are structure along which we expect displacement to occur. By definition, since a shallow earthquake is a process that produces displacement across a fault, all shallow earthquakes occur on active faults. Inactive faults are structures that we can identify, but which do no have earthquakes. As you can imagine, because of the complexity of earthquake activity, judging a fault to be inactive can be tricky, but often we can measure the last time substantial offset occurred across a fault. If a fault has been inactive for millions of years, it's certainly safe to call it inactive. However, some faults only have large earthquakes once in thousands of years, and we need to evaluate carefully their hazard potential. Reactivated faults form when movement along formerly inactive faults can help to alleviate strain within the crust or upper mantle. Deformation in the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States is a good example of fault reactivation. The faul structures formed about 500 Ma ago but are responding to a new forces and relieving strain in the mid-continent.

Fault Structure

Although the number of observations of deep fault structure is small, the available exposed faults provide some information on the deep structure of a fault. A fault "zone" consists of several smaller regions defined by the style and amount of deformation within them.

The cartoon above shows the structure of an exposed section of a vertical strike-slip fault zone (after Chester et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993). The center of the fault is the most deformed and is where most of the offset or slip between the surrounding rock occurs. The region can be quite small, about as wide as a pencil is long, and it is identified by the finely ground rocks called cataclasite (we call the ground up material found closer to the surface, gouge). From all the slipping and grinding, the gouge is composed of very fine-grained material that resembles clay. Surrounding the central zone is a region several meters across that contains abundant fractures. Outside that region is another that contains distinguishable fractures, but much less dense than the preceding region. Last is the competent "host" rock that marks the end of the fault zone.

Describing Faults: Faulting Geometry

Faulting is a complex process and the variety of faults that exists is large. We will consider a simplified but general fault classification based on the geometry of faulting, which we describe by specifying three angular measurements: dip, strike, and slip.

Fault Dip

The fault illustrated in the fault structure section was oriented vertically. In Earth, faults take on a range of orientations from vertical to horizontal. Dip is the angle that describes the steepness of the fault surface. This angle is measured from Earth's surface, or a plane parallel to Earth's surface. The dip of a horizontal fault is zero (usually specified in degrees: 0°), and the dip of a vertical fault is 90°. We use some old mining terms to label the rock "blocks" above and below a fault. If you were tunneling through a fault, the material beneath the fault would be by your feet, the other material would be hanging above you head. The material resting on the fault is called the hanging wall, the material beneath the fault is called the foot wall.

Fault Strike

The strike is an angle used to specify the orientation of the fault and measured clockwise from north. For example, a strike of 0° or 180° indicates a fault that is oriented in a north-south direction, 90° or 270° indicates east-west oriented structure. To remove the ambiguity, we always specify the strike such that when you "look" in the strike direction, the fault dips to you right. Of course if the fault is perfectly vertical you have to describe the situation as a special case. If a fault curves, the strike varies along the fault, but this is seldom causes a communication problem if you are careful to specify the location (such as latitude and longitude) of the measurement.

Fault Slip Angle

Dip and strike describe the orientation of the fault, we also have to describe the direction of motion across the fault. That is, which way did one side of the fault move with respect to the other. The parameter that describes this motion is called the slip. The slip has two components, a "magnitude" which tells us how far the rocks moved, and a direction (it's a vector). We usually specify the magnitude and direction separately.

The magnitude of slip is simply how far the two sides of the fault moved relative to one another; it's a distance usually a few centimeters for small earthquakes and meters for large events. The direction of slip is measured on the fault surface, and like the strike and dip, it is specified as an angle. Specifically the slip direction is the direction that the hanging wall moved relative to the footwall. If the hanging wall moves to the right, the slip direction is 0°; if it moves up, the slip angle is 90°, if it moves to the left, the slip angle is 180°, and if it moves down, the slip angle is 270° or -90°.

Faulting Styles

Hanging wall movement determines the geometric classification of faulting. We distinguish between "dip-slip" and "strike-slip" hanging-wall movements.

Dip-slip movement occurs when the hanging wall moved predominantly up or down relative to the footwall. If the motion was down, the fault is called a normal fault, if the movement was up, the fault is called a reverse fault. Downward movement is "normal" because we normally would expect the hanging wall to slide downward along the foot wall because of the pull of gravity. Moving the hanging wall up an inclined fault requires work to overcome friction on the fault and the downward pull of gravity.

When the hanging wall moves horizontally, it's a strike-slip earthquake. If the hanging wall moves to the left, the earthquake is called right-lateral, if it moves to the right, it's called a left-lateral fault. The way to keep these terms straight is to imagine that you are standing on one side of the fault and an earthquake occurs. If objects on the other side of the fault move to your left, it's a left-lateral fault, if they move to your right, it's a right-lateral fault.

When the hanging wall motion is neither dominantly vertical nor horizontal, the motion is called oblique-slip. Although oblique faulting isn't unusual, it is less common than the normal, reverse, and strike-slip movement.

 

 

For more information, please see the list of Seismology Texts or the list of popular-science books on earthquake science.